The Reasoning Page

This page does not solely focus on argumentation in natural language, but broadens the arena to address the issue of the nature and contexts of good reasoning. Thus, the page includes everything from formal logic resources (because in many contexts formal reasoning is good and appropriate reasoning) to resources in rhetoric (despite what Plato thought, persuasion is not inimical to reasoning). I have also included links to reasoning in specific contexts.

Argumentation/Critical Thinking/Informal Logic

Critical Thinking Resources, Handouts, Class Notes, etc.

Critical Thinking Journals

Critical Thinking Papers & Books

Critical Thinking Syllabi

Critical Thinking Associations, Centres, etc.

For skeptics’ societies see below, under "Critical Thinking as Skepticism"


Useful Tools for Critical Thinking

Critical Thinking as Skepticism

Formal Reasoning

Formal Reasoning Software and Tools

Formal Reasoning Resources, Handouts, etc.

Formal Reasoning Journals

Formal Reasoning Syllabi

Formal Reasoning Associations, Centres, etc.

History of Logic


Rhetoric Resources, Handouts, etc.

Rhetoric Syllabi


Reasoning in context

Creative Thinking

Puzzles, Examples, etc.

Logic and Reasoning in Computing, Technology & Science

Logic and Reasoning in the Social World

Logic and Reasoning in the Academic World

Reasoning in the Arts

Reasoning in the Media

Reasoning in Politics and Public Affairs

Reasoning in the Professions

Education (K-12)



Reasoning Outside of Western Contexts

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